White kidney bean extract- α-amylase inhibitor(α-AI) study
Yongyuan Bio Amy 20190830
1. Brief Introduction
White kidney bean, whose biology is called Phaseolus vulgaris, is named for its varied colors. It belongs to Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Phaseolus, native to Mexico and Argentina in the Americas, and was introduced and cultivated in China at the end of the 16th century.
2. Nutritional Value of White Kidney Bean
White kidney bean is rich in nutrients, including protein, fat, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, vitamin A, carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E, calcium, phosphorus, sodium and other ingredients. It is a rare high potassium, high magnesium, low sodium food, suitable for patients with heart disease, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, hypokalemia and salt avoidance were fed.
Since 1970s, because of its medical value, the wihite kidney extract has been widely studied. At present, α-amylase inhibitor(α-AI) has been isolated from the seeds of legumes, wheat, wild amaranth and other plants. The higher activity of α-amylase inhibitor is extracted from kidney beans, which has a strong inhibitory effect on mammalian pancreatic α-amylase, and has been used as a diet health food abroad.
3. How does the kidney bean extract block starch?
During digestion, our bodies convert carbohydrates in food into sucrose through an alpha-amylase, which is consumed by the body as an energy substance or stored in fat.
The kidney bean extract contains kidney bean protein, which is a natural alpha-amylase inhibitor. Alpha-amylase inhibitor, as a pure natural biological active substance, belongs to a glycolytic enzyme inhibitor, which exists in the endosperm of plant seeds. It is called "starch blocker" abroad. By inhibiting the activity of alpha-amylase, the kidney bean extract can effectively inhibit the decomposition of starch, thereby blocking the absorption of heat from starch food and exerting weight-loss effect. It is discharged from the body through the gastrointestinal tract, does not enter the blood circulation system, does not act on the brain center, does not inhibit appetite while losing weight, no side effects were observed at high doses, which conforms to the WHO's weight-loss principle. And approved by the Ministry of Health, it can be used as common food. It can be used in dietary supplements, food, beverage and pet food to reduce the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch in diet without affecting the texture and taste of food.
4. Extraction technology of alpha-amylase inhibitor from white kidney bean
The main extraction steps of a-amylase inhibitor from white kidney beans include grinding, heat treatment or water extraction, precipitation, filtering separation and purification, and drying to obtain white powder.
5. Method for determination of alpha-amylase inhibitor activity of white kidney bean
(1) Salicylic acid (DNS) colorimetric method
Pre-temperature the same amount of alpha-amylase inhibitor solution and alpha-amylase diluent at 37℃ for 15 minutes, then add 2% soluble starch solution, react accurately for 5 minutes, add DNS, boil water for 5 minutes, and then take out ice bath for 5 minutes (termination of reaction). Distilled water was used to replace the inhibitor solution and alpha-amylase diluent as control and blank group. OD values were determined at 520 nm after dilution to an appropriate multiple.
(2) Iodine colorimetric method
The diluent and inhibitor of alpha-amylase were kept at 37℃ for 10 minutes, followed by starch solution. The starch solution was kept at 37℃ for 5 minutes, then cooled to 0℃ after take out and iodized solution was added to determine OD value at 660 nm. Distilled water was used to replace the inhibitor solution and enzyme solution as blank and control respectively. Simultaneous determination with experimental group and calculation of inhibitor activity
6. Study on alpha-amylase inhibitor of kidney bean
As a pure natural extract, the alpha-amylase inhibitor in white kidney bean can effectively inhibit the activity of human salivary amylase and pancreatic amylase, prevent the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, thereby reducing weight, blood sugar and lipid, and inhibit the increase of blood sugar concentration. Because of its high efficiency and safety, it is favored by more and more researchers. Over the past decade, more than 14 clinical trials have been carried out, eventually becoming a proven starch blocker.
In the 1990s, many foreign companies have begun to devote themselves to the development of amylase inhibitor proteins for sugar control and weight loss in kidney beans. The first standardized alpha-amylase inhibitor protein, Phase 2 carbcontroller, was developed by Pharmachem Laboratories. In Europe, America, Asia, Japan and Korea, Phase 2 has become the main health food ingredient for weight management. In 2000, the American Science and Technology Laboratory published a double-blind experiment that showed that the white kidney beans extract could reduce the amount of starch converted into glucose by 66%, thus greatly controlling the rise of blood sugar and neutralizing carbohydrates. In 2001, Chris Peels team of the University of California developed a stable new technology, and the white kidney bean alpha-amylase inhibitor protein entered the era of industrialization 1.0. By 2009, the patented 2.0 version of white kidney bean alpha-amylase inhibitor protein with lower cost and fewer restrictions was put into production in Germany, Japan and China.
7. Application of alpha-amylase inhibitors from white kidney beans
White kidney bean is not only rich in nutritional value, but also has high medicinal and health value. It is a traditional Chinese medicine and food homologous food.
Since 1940, foreign scientists have discovered alpha-amylase inhibitors from wheat and legumes. By 1990s, the white kidney bean extract was successfully developed as the first standardized starch inhibitor. Amylase inhibitors for weight control began to appear on the market. In 2001, dietary supplements containing a large number of alpha-amylase inhibitors of white kidney beans began to appear in European and American markets, and the research of white kidney bean extract has achieved breakthrough success. Nowadays, it is widely used in many products all over the world.
At present, the main functional products of alpha-amylase inhibitors on the market are:
In the United States, the production of α-amylase inhibitor of white kidney bean was first carried out, and a patent was applied. α-amylase inhibitor of white kidney bean was recognized by FDA and GRAS as a safe and certified natural starch blocker. It was also the first clinically certified starch blocker in the world. It was approved by the Ministry of Health of China in 2011 as a new resource food in mainland China.
One of the important demonstrations of safety is that the Chinese Olympic Doping Testing Center confirms that the product is not a doping or an agonist in the test report of the white kidney bean extract. This conclusion clearly demonstrates the safety of the product and proves that the white kidney bean extract does not affect the absorption of any other nutrients and normal gastrointestinal activities.
In addition to extensive literature support, animal and clinical trials have been conducted from the European Union, the United States and China. At the same time, China CDC has completed acute toxicological test and long-term toxicological test of animals, confirming its safety. In the European Union, security assessments have also been completed.
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